SOHO : Small Office Home Office
Freeware - Opensource software tips, tricks, tweaks & fixes for managing, securing, improving the performance of SOHO Desktop, Laptop, Networks

Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Add Administrator Account to Log In Screen

When Windows XP is first installed it requires you to enter at least one name of a user who will access the computer. Once you create this name the default Administrator account vanishes. To access it, press Ctrl-Alt-Delete twice at the Welcome screen to retrieve the standard Windows 2000 logon dialog. Log on as Administrator from this point. To log the Administrator off, click [Start] [Log Off] and [Log Off] when the [Log Off Windows] selection box appears. The Log On screen with the available users will be displayed.

To Make the Administrator Account Always Visible on the Login Screen

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]
Registry Key: HKEY_LOCALMACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList
Modify/Create the Value Data Type(s) and Value Name(s) as detailed below.
Data Type: DWORD// Value Name: Administrator
Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]
Exit Registry and Reboot
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Monday, December 28, 2009

How to add readmore in blogger?

Follow this instructions
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Embed Photos from Picasa Web Albums

Picasa Web Albums is probably the best way to view a photo album online, but did you know you can embed those photos into a site? Next to each photo, Google shows a link that reads "Embed in Blog/MySpace". Check "Hide album link" and copy the HTML code.

You'll notice a link similar to this one:[username]/[id1]/[id2]/[id3]/s288/name.jpg

Google resizes your photo to 288 pixels width. But that's pretty small, I hear you saying. The nice thing is that you can change the width, but only to fixed values. Here's a list of numbers you can use to replace 288:
72, 144, 200, 320, 400, 512, 576, 640, 720, 800, 912, 1024, 1152, 1280, 1440, 1600.

If you want to place a direct link to a photo, you can use 1600, as this seems to be the biggest value.
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how to change the blogger favicon?

This needs editing your template file.

1. Design the icon and save it as png (ico is preferred, but it's harder to upload). The preferred resolution is 16x16, but i saved mine at 22x22 for greater quality, and it seems it works :) (i think 36x36 is the limit)
2. Upload the icon somewhere (photobucket,, and copy the link
3. Go to Edit HTML under the Template tab in your blog's dashboard
4. Find the follwowing line (Ctrl+f) : data:blog.pagetitle
5. Insert this code below it: link href='URL of your icon file' rel='shortcut icon' type='image/' (replace "URL of your icon file" with the link you've copied at step 2)
6. Save the template
In order to see the change, close your page, delete the temporary internet files from your browser and reopen your page
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how to hide blogger navbar?

'm using the blogger tmeplates " rounders 2" and this is the hack to remove the navbar

Copy and paste the code provided below and insert it into the template, the code can be inserted anywhere in the template.

#navbar {
height: 0px;
visibility: hidden;
display: none;
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Saturday, December 26, 2009

install clamTK on ubuntu

clamTK is used for cleaning windows virus on file servers, mail servers and restoring windows partitions.

To install :
sudo apt-get install calmav-freshclam

To update :
sudo freshclam (to update the definations)
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How To Set up a repository cache with apt-cacher

When running multiple machine with the same distribution, it is interesting to set up a repository cache on your network so that once a package is downloaded from an official repository, all other machines will download it from your local area network.

Having different machines running the same linux distribution, it becomes interesting to set up a repository cache somewhere on your network. This way, you won't download common packages more than 1 time from official repositories.

Here is the situation, we have one machine called repository-cache, this machine is going to act as the repository cache, basically, any other machines in your network is going to use it as a repository.

1. Getting started

As usual, you need to install the required packages in the first place. So type in a terminal:

$sudo apt-get install apt-cacher apache2

Once this is done, it is time to get into the configuration files in /etc/apt-cacher/apt-cacher.conf

2. Configuring Apt-Cacher

2.1. apt-cacher.conf

So now, open apt-cacher's main configuration file: /etc/apt-cacher/apt-cacher.conf and start editing it according to your settings.

The default port apt-cacher is running on is port 3142. You might want to change this value accordingly to your needs.

allowed_hosts: by default, all host are allowed to use the repository cache. You can change this value if you want to only allow certain host. In my case, I want to allow my LAN and localhost (both and on ubuntu boxes), so I changed the value to:


as is always allowed, it was not necessary to add

generate_reports: This directive makes apt-cacher create a report on how efficient your cache was on a daily basis. Default is 1, if you want to disable this, set it to 0

path_map: This is an interesting directive. Here you can define different aliases for different repository host. For my ubuntu edgy box, my path_map looks like this:

path_map = debuntu ; ubuntu; ubuntu-updates ; ubuntu-security

Let me explain that bit. Here I created mappings from names:

* debuntu to host
* ubuntuand ubuntu-updates to host
* and ubuntu-security to

Now, in order to access a specific repository, we simply need to append the mapping name to our cache repository server, like: repository_cache_machine:port/mapping_name

So, for instance, we can access debuntu repository through http://repository-cache:3142/debuntu and ubuntu secutiry repository through http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu-security.

2.2. Activating apt-cacher to start

In order to start, apt-cacher needs to be activated from /etc/default/apt-cacher. So open /etc/default/apt-cacher and set AUTOSTART to 1:


Now restart apt-cacher:

$sudo /etc/init.d/apt-cacher restart

Now that apt-cacher runs, it is time to update all our clients /etc/apt/sources.list files so every host on the network will use our repository-cache machine.

3. Setting up the Clients and Server sources.list

Now it is time to set up the client hosts apt source list files: /etc/apt/sources.list. It make sense to use the repository cache on the server too, as that way, any updates made by the server will fill up the cache.

Here is the original /etc/apt/sources.list:

#debuntu repository
deb edgy multiverse
deb-src edgy multiverse

#ubuntu main repository
deb edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src edgy main restricted universe multiverse

#ubuntu updates repository
deb edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

#ubuntu security updates repository
deb edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

In order to use our cache repository, those entries need to be changed to:

#debuntu repository
deb http://repository-cache:3142/debuntu edgy multiverse
deb-src http://repository-cache:3142/debuntu edgy multiverse

#ubuntu main repository
deb http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu edgy main restricted universe multiverse

#ubuntu updates repository
deb http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu-updates edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu-updates edgy-updates main restricted universe multiverse

#ubuntu security updates repository
deb http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu-security edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://repository-cache:3142/ubuntu-security edgy-security main restricted universe multiverse

Cool, now, every host should be able to retrieve the .deb packages from our repository cache once:

$sudo apt-get update

has been ran on every host.

4.Use as a proxy to APT
Static configuration

In a terminal, type:

sudo nano /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/01proxy

Inside your new file, add a line that says:

Acquire::http::Proxy "http://:3142";

"Roaming" mode

This method is useful if you are alternating between office and home with a laptop for example. It involves using the ping command to determine if the apt-cacher server is available at boot-time and then configure the APT proxy or not.

* Open /etc/rc.local (alt-F2, "gksu gedit /etc/rc.local")
* Change the top from "#!/bin/sh -e" to "#!/bin/bash"
* put this near the end (before "exit 0" if present) replacing "SERVER_NAME_HERE" with your server's resolvable name or it's IP:

. /lib/lsb/init-functions
log_daemon_msg "Configuring APT cache proxy" "(based on SERVER_NAME_HERE's presence...)"
ping -c 1 SERVER_NAME_HERE &> /dev/null
if [ $? = "0" ]; then
echo "Acquire::http::Proxy \"http://SERVER_NAME_HERE:3142\";" > /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/01SERVER_NAME_HEREproxy
rm /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/01SERVER_NAME_HEREproxy &> /dev/null
log_end_msg 0

5. Importing existing package from /var/cache/apt/archives/ to apt-cacher repository

It might happen that your server already got a whole lot of packages cached in its local repository: /var/cache/apt/archives/. apt-cacher offers a tool to import those files to apt-cacher repository.

There is a whole lot of usefull script that can be found in /usr/share/apt-cacher/. The one we are interested in here is To import deb files from /var/cache/apt/archives to apt-cacher repository run:

$sudo /usr/share/apt-cacher/ /var/cache/apt/archives

This must be run as user root or .deb files might not be copied to the cache repository

Now, the directory /var/cache/apt-cacher/packages/ should be filled up with a whole bunch of packages.

6. Getting report usage of your repository cache

If you left the directive generate_reports set to 1, apt-cacher will generate report on the usage of the cache every day.

You will be able to access it at the address: http://repository-cache:3142/report


If you need to regenerate the report, run: $sudo /usr/share/apt-cacher/

7. Conclusion

apt-cacher is an easy and efficient package which will save you both time and bandwidth when using multiple machines with the same distribution like it could happen in a home network or in at a company.

Sources :
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Thursday, December 24, 2009

registry hack for automatic login win xp

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]
Registry Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
Modify/Create the Value Data Type(s) and Value Name(s) as detailed below.

Data Type: String Value // Value Name: DefaultUserName
Setting for Value Data: [Enter the account name to be automatically logged on]

Data Type: String Value // Value Name: DefaultPassword
Setting for Value Data: [Enter the account password]

Data Type: String Value // Value Name: AutoAdminLogon
Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]
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how to setup legal notification in xp?

Create Legal Notice Logon Dialog Box

In situations where you need users to review a legal notice before logging on, this tweak will create the caption for the notice and the notice itself which you type directly into the string values.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]
Registry Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Modify/Create the Value Name [LegalNoticeCaption] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_SZ [String Value] // Value Name: LegalNoticeCaption
Value Data for LegalNoticeCaption: [Type the Caption for the Dialog Box]

Modify/Create the Value Name [LegalNoticeText] according to the Value Data listed below.
Data Type: REG_SZ [String Value] // Value Name: LegalNoticeText
Value Data for LegalNoticeText: [Type the Data for the Legal Notice]
Exit Registry and Reboot

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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

How to turn on automatic logon in Windows XP?

If you set a computer for automatic logon, anyone who can physically gain access to the computer can also gain access to everything that is on the computer, including any network or networks that the computer is connected to. Additionally, if you turn on automatic logon, the password is stored in the registry in plain text. The specific registry key that stores this value is remotely readable by the Authenticated Users group. Therefore, only use this setting if the computer is physically secured and if you make sure that users who you do not trust cannot remotely see the registry.

You can use Registry Editor to add your log on information. To do this, follow these steps:

Click Start, click Run, type regedit, and then click OK.

Locate the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Using your account name and password, double-click the DefaultUserName entry, type your user name, and then click OK.

Double-click the DefaultPassword entry, type your password under the value data box, and then click OK.

If there is no DefaultPassword value, create the value. To do this, follow these steps:
In Registry Editor, click Edit, click New, and then click String Value.

Type DefaultPassword as the value name, and then press ENTER.
Double-click the newly created key, and then type your password in the Value Data box.

If no DefaultPassword string is specified, Windows XP automatically changes the value of the AutoAdminLogon registry key from 1 (true) to 0 (false) to turn off the AutoAdminLogon feature.
Double-click the AutoAdminLogon entry, type 1 in the Value Data box, and then click OK.

If there is no AutoAdminLogon entry, create the entry. To do this, follow these steps:

In Registry Editor, click Edit, click New, and then click String Value.
Type AutoAdminLogon as the value name, and then press ENTER.
Double-click the newly created key, and then type 1 in the Value Data box.

Quit Registry Editor.

Click Start, click Restart, and then click OK.

After your computer restarts and Windows XP starts, you can log on automatically.

If you want to bypass the automatic logon to log on as a different user, hold down the SHIFT key after you log off or after Windows XP restarts. Note that this procedure applies only to the first logon. To enforce this setting for future logoffs, the administrator must set the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Type: REG_SZ
Data: 1

You can also use turn on automatic logon without editing the registry in Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition and in Microsoft Windows XP Professional on a computer that is not joined to a domain. To do this, follow these steps:

Click Start, and then click Run.
In the Open box, type control userpasswords2, and then click OK.

Note When users try to display help information in the User Accounts window in Windows XP Home Edition, the help information is not displayed. Additionally, users receive the following
error message:
Cannot find the Drive:\Windows\System32\users.hlp Help file. Check to see that the file exists on your hard disk drive. If it does not exist, you must reinstall it.

Clear the "Users must enter a user name and password to use this computer" check box, and then click Apply.

In the Automatically Log On window, type the password in the Password box, and then retype the password in the Confirm Password box.

Click OK to close the Automatically Log On window, and then click OK to close the User Accounts window.
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Wednesday, December 16, 2009

How can I install Remote Desktop Web Connection on Windows ?

Remote Desktop Web Connection is an optional World Wide Web Service component of Internet Information Services, which is included by default in Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003. Just like IIS, Remote Desktop Web Connection is not installed by default on Windows XP/2003, but must be installed using Add or Remove Programs.

The Remote Desktop Web Connection is an optional component of Windows Server 2003 and can be installed from the installation media.

Note: Users of Windows Server 2003 do not need to download this package. They can manually add this package from Add/Remove in the Control Panel. However, if you still want to download the package please read Download Remote Desktop Web Connection for Windows Server 2003.

When you install Remote Desktop Web Connection, the files are copied by default to the %systemroot%\Web\Tsweb directory of your webserver. The included sample default.htm and connect.asp page can be used as is, or you can modify them to meet the needs of your application.

The Remote Desktop Web Connection is a Win32-based ActiveX control (COM object) that can be used to run Remote Desktop sessions from within Internet Explorer.

The Remote Desktop Web Connection download package includes the downloadable ActiveX control and sample Web page that can be used as a starting point for running Windows-based programs inside Internet Explorer. Developers can also use the Remote Desktop Web Connection to develop client-side applications that interact with applications running on a terminal server.

The downloadable ActiveX control provides most of the same functionality as the full Remote Desktop Connection software in Windows Server 2003 (read Download RDP 5.2), but is designed to deliver this functionality over the Web. The Web Package Setup program installs the downloadable ActiveX control, the ActiveX Client Control Deployment Guide, and sample Web pages on a server running Internet Information Services 4.0 or later.

Remote Desktop Web Connection benefits include:

Run sessions within Internet Explorer - The Remote Desktop Web Connection is a Win32 ActiveX control that runs in Internet Explorer 5 and later versions—on any Windows 32-bit operating system. When users first navigate to a Web page embedded with the Remote Desktop Web Connection ActiveX control, they will see a dialog box that asks, "Do you want to install this control?" Using the sample Web pages as an example, the Web site administrator can design pages that either link directly to a terminal server-hosted application, or simply run the entire desktop.

Quick and easy access to computers running Windows XP Professional with Remote Desktop enabled or Windows Terminal Servers
- The Remote Desktop Web Connection is especially useful for fast, on-demand access to terminal servers by both users and administrators.

Ability to be embedded in Web pages or launched in separate pages - Using the functionality of Internet Explorer, Remote Desktop sessions can be embedded in an existing Web page, or launched in a separate Internet Explorer window. A Web site administrator can create simple scripting code that allows users to launch multiple Remote Desktop sessions from the same Web page, or start multiple Remote Desktop sessions within a single Web page.

Programmability - As with any ActiveX control or COM object, many applications such as Internet Explorer or Visual Basic, and Visual C++ development systems can insert and set properties on the Remote Desktop Web Connection. The Web site author or programmer can write scripts that communicate between an application running on the desktop and a Terminal Services-hosted application using the Remote Desktop Web Connection and the Remote Desktop Protocol virtual channel architecture.

Remote Desktop Web Connection Security - The Remote Desktop Web Connection is a high-encryption, Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) 5.0 client and uses RSA Security’s RC4 cipher with a key strength of 40-, 56-, or 128-bit, as determined by the server to which it is connecting. The Remote Desktop Web Connection uses the well-known RDP TCP port (3389) to communicate to the server. Unlike some other display protocols, which send data over the network using clear text or with an easily decodable "scrambling" algorithm, Remote Desktop Web Connection's built-in encryption makes it safe to use over any network - including the Internet - as the protocol cannot be easily sniffed to discover passwords and other sensitive data.

To install Remote Desktop Web Connection

1. Open Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel.
2. Click Add/Remove Windows Components.
3. Select Internet Information Services, and then click Details.
4. In the Subcomponents of Internet Information Services list, select World Wide Web Service, and then click Details.
5. In the Subcomponents for World Wide Web Service list, click the Remote Desktop Web Connection check box, and then click OK.
6. In the Windows Components Wizard, click Next.
7. Open Internet Services Manager. run "
8. Expand the folder hierarchy until you reach the local computer name\Web Sites\Default Web Site\tsweb folder.
9. Right-click the tsweb folder and then click Properties.
10. Click the Directory Security tab on the Properties dialog box.
11. In Anonymous access and authentication control, click Edit.
12. Check the Anonymous access check box on the Authentication Methods dialog box, and then click OK twice.

To connect to another computer using Remote Desktop Web Connection

1. Ensure that Remote Desktop Web Connection is installed and running on the Web server.
2. Ensure that your client computer has an active network connection and that the WINS server service (or other name resolution method) is functioning.
3. On your client computer, start Microsoft Internet Explorer.
4. In the Address box, type the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for the home directory of the Web server hosting Remote Desktop Web Connection.
5. The URL is "http://" followed by the Windows Networking name of your server, followed by the path of the directory containing the Remote Desktop Web Connection files (default = /Tsweb/). (Note the forward slash marks.) For example, if your Web server is registered with the WINS server as "Admin1", in the Address box you type: http://admin1/tsweb/, and then press ENTER. The Remote Desktop Web Connection page appears on the screen.

6. In Server, type the name of the remote computer to which you want to connect.
7. Optionally, specify the screen size and logon information for your connection.
8. Click Connect.

9. After you supply your username and password the Windows Server 2003 desktop appears and you can begin to work.

Source :
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Monday, December 14, 2009

How do I Use Multiple Screens on One Terminal over ssh session?

Most of the time GUI is not available on remote Linux system, you login over ssh and start to work, if you need to run two or three task at a time, you login over ssh two or three times. However, with screen windows manager utility you can run multiple terminals at the same time from single console login over ssh session (UNIX guru uses the term called multiplexing for this concept). Any seasoned Linux admin should be aware of this nifty tool :)

Install screen if it is not installed under Debian Linux
Type the following command:
# apt-get install screen

FreeBSD user can use ports to install screen
# cd /usr/ports/misc/screen
# make install clean

Login to remote server over ssh
$ ssh

(C) Start screen session. You can name your window/session (1 is name of session):
$ screen -S 1

Let us start pine mail reader on first session or window.
$ pine

(D) Next you would like to download something from ftp/http site while you are reading emails. You need to create another screen window by pressing special key combination. Press CTRL + a followed by c key (first hit CTRL+a, releases both keys and press c). As soon as you hit 'c' you will get new shell prompt at console. Now use wget to download belenix.iso.bz2 (Solaris live CD) from net: $ wget

(E) But how do I switch between these two tasks?
Switching between windows is the specialty of screen utility. So to switch between pine and wget window (or session) press CTRL+a followed by n key (first hit CTRL+a, releases both keys and press n).

To list all windows use the command CTRL+a followed by " key (first hit CTRL+a, releases both keys and press " ).

To switch to window by number use the command CTRL+a followed by ' (first hit CTRL+a, releases both keys and press ' it will prompt for window number).

Common screen commands
screen command Task
Ctrl+a c Create new window

Ctrl+a k Kill the current window / session
Ctrl+a w List all windows
Ctrl+a 0-9 Go to a window numbered 0 9, use Ctrl+a w to see number
Ctrl+a Ctrl+a Toggle / switch between the current and previous window
Ctrl+a S Split terminal horizontally into regions and press Ctrl+a c to create new window there
Ctrl+a :resize Resize region
Ctrl+a :fit Fit screen size to new terminal size. You can also hit Ctrl+a F for the the same task
Ctrl+a :remove Remove / delete region. You can also hit Ctrl+a X for the same taks
Ctrl+a tab Move to next region
Ctrl+a D (Shift-d) Power detach and logout
Ctrl+a d Detach but keep shell window open
Ctrl-a Ctrl-\ Quit screen
Ctrl-a ? Display help screen i.e. display a list of commands

Suggested readings:
See screen command man page for further details:
man screen

Source :
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Monday, November 16, 2009

VGA over Cat-5 cable

DIY : VGA over Cat-5 cable
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Sunday, November 15, 2009

Branding windows xp machines

Branding Your Machines - Windows 2000/XP/2003

This article is for Windows 2000, XP and Server 2003 machines. If you are using Windows Vista then you should follow this article.

If you have purchased a machine from one of the big manufacturers, you will have seen that they have customised the "System Properties" window with their own logo.
In addition, there will usually be a button next to it, which gives you additional support information.
These two items are known as OEM information, and can be easily replaced with your own.

This is useful if you build your own computers, or in a larger office allowing you to place the company branding on the machines along with details on how to contact your internal support department.

All you have to do is create the files which are very specific and place them in the location.

Support Information TextScreenshot - System Properties with our OEM information.

Open a new notepad document and copy the text below in to it.

[general] Manufacturer=Your First line here Model=Your second line here [Support Information] Line1=" Your first line here" Line2=" A second..." Line3=" and a third..."

Replace the text with your chosen information.

For example, to get the text shown in the screenshot above... we used the following text:

Manufacturer=Amset IT Solutions Ltd.
Model=Exchange Server
[Support Information]
Line1=" Maintained by Amset IT Solutions Ltd."
Line3=" "


When creating your own text, it is important that you follow the pattern shown.
There must be no breaks between the lines and no spaces between the "=" and start of the text.
You can increase the number of lines by simply adding more and increasing the number.

Saving the File

Once you have finished creating the file, you need to save it.
The file name you MUST use is "oeminfo.ini". In order to be able to save the file without the ".txt" extension, choose in the "Save as file type" selection, change it from ".txt" to "All Files". You can then enter your own extension.

Support Information Logo

The logo also needs to be created in a specific way.

The image can be no larger than 182 pixels x 114 pixels. It can be smaller, but anything larger will be cropped. The file also needs to be in ".bmp" format. You will probably want to create a special image for this application so that you can make the best use of the space.

As it is a bitmap, you cannot make use of transparency options, so we suggest that you put your logo in a contrasting colour as in our example screenshot. This will ensure that no matter what colour scheme is in use, the image looks as you want.

However with Windows XP (and Windows 2003 Server), if you use an image that is smaller than the optimum size, then Windows will just centre it in the available space.
With any version of Windows older than XP (2000, ME, 98, 95) Windows will stretch it to fill the available space. This can look odd. Therefore you might want to consider having two images and deploy different ones depending on the OS. If this isn't possible, using a fixed sized image is best as it will allow you to control exactly how the image looks.

Saving the File

Once you have created the image, you need to save it with a special file name: "oemlogo.bmp". No other name can be used.

Positioning the Files

Once you have created the files, they need to be positioned correctly. Both files need to be located in the same place. As an alternative, you could use one of the batch files below.

Windows 2000


Windows XP, 2003 Server


Windows 95, 98, ME


Once the files are in place, you will be able to see the changes immediately. Right click on "My Computer" and choose "Properties". If you make further changes to the files then these will also be seen immediately.

Batch File Deployment

Single File Set

If you are using the same files for all operating systems, then you can use this batch file. This file will work out the correct location for the files and copy them to the appropriate location.

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"

Multiple File Set

If you are deploying to Windows 2000 and Windows XP with different logos, then you might want to consider an automated batch file deployment.
The script below detects what operating system the machine is running, then copies the required image across before renaming it so that Windows can pick it up. It is based on our "Detecting the Operating System" sample script which you can read about here.

echo off
rem Script for deploying OEM INFO and OEM LOGO to
rem different operating systems
rem Simon Butler, Amset IT Solutions Ltd. 12-12-03
rem see
rem Requirements
rem Image file for Windows 2000 named oemlogo-2k.bmp
rem Image file for Windows XP named oemlogo-xp.bmp
rem And oeminfo.ini file.
rem All three files should be placed in the same
rem directory as this batch file
rem If running from login script, place all three files
rem in your "netlogon" share on the domain controllers.
rem Remember - if you are running from a network share
rem it must be a mapped drive!
rem ***************************************************

rem Get the OS and dump to file
ver >%systemdrive%\ver.txt

Rem now find the operating system and act accordingly
findstr "4.0" %systemdrive%\ver.txt
if not errorlevel 1 goto nt4
findstr "5.0" %systemdrive%\ver.txt
if not errorlevel 1 goto win2k
findstr "5.1" %systemdrive%\ver.txt
if not errorlevel 1 goto winxp
findstr "5.2" %systemdrive%\ver.txt
if not errorlevel 1 goto win2003

goto win9x

set OpSys-NT4
echo %OpSys% >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
rem Windows NT4 settings

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo-2k.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"
del "%systemroot%\system32"\oemlogo.bmp
rename "%systemroot%\system32\oemlogo-2k.bmp" oemlogo.bmp"

goto next

set OpSys=Win2K
echo %OpSys% >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
rem Windows 2000 settings

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo-2k.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"
del "%systemroot%\system32"\oemlogo.bmp
rename "%systemroot%\system32\oemlogo-2k.bmp" oemlogo.bmp"

goto next

set OpSys=XP
echo %OpSys% >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
rem Windows XP settings

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo-xp.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"
del "%systemroot%\system32"\oemlogo.bmp
rename "%systemroot%\system32\oemlogo-xp.bmp" oemlogo.bmp"

goto next

set OpSys=Win2003
echo %OpSys% >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
rem Windows 2003 settings

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo-xp.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"
del "%systemroot%\system32"\oemlogo.bmp
rename "%systemroot%\system32\oemlogo-xp.bmp" oemlogo.bmp"

goto next

set OpSys=9x
echo %OpSys% >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
rem Windows 9x settings

copy oeminfo.ini "%systemroot%\system32"
copy oemlogo-2k.bmp "%systemroot%\system32"
del "%systemroot%\system"\oemlogo.bmp
rename "%systemroot%\system\oemlogo-2k.bmp" oemlogo.bmp"

goto next

echo done >>%systemdrive%\result.txt
echo Cleaning up!
del %systemdrive%\result.txt
del %systemdrive%\ver.txt
rem if problems, put REM in front of above two lines
rem to read the results files


If you do not see anything, check the names of the files - as they must be as shown.
Once you have checked the file names, ensure the files are formatted correctly.
If you are using the script file, put "rem" in front of the two lines that start "del" at the end so that the results files are not deleted.
Continue Reading...

Brand your copy of Windows XP

Have you used someone's new Hewlet Packard with their OEM version of Windows XP? You've seen that HP has their own icon in the Start Menu, underneath Run, that goes to their Help Site. Now, you can have your icon that does anything you want (website, program, etc) and says anything you want. Basically, you are "branding" Windows XP (Home or Pro), great for if you are a computer builder and sell them, or you just want to make Windows XP your own. It involves Regedit.

1. Start up Notepad and create a new registry file (*.reg) and copy and paste the following into it:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00











2. Edit where it says YOUR ICON HERE to a path to an icon (ex. c:\\icon.ico), it must be 24x24 pixels and in *.ico format. Use double back slash for path names.

3. Edit both places where it says YOUR TITLE HERE to what you want it to say in the Start Menu (ex. Elranzer Homepage).

4. Edit where it says YOUR FUNCTION here to what you want it to do when you click it, it can be anything... your website, a local HTML document, a program, a Windows funtion, whatever your imagination can provide (ex.

5. Save this file as brand.reg, double-click it to enterin your information, and refresh Explorer (log off/on) to see it in the Start Menu!! This works in both Home and Professional (and probably 64-Bit Professional) Editions!
Continue Reading...

Options to change wallpaper may be missing or unavailable on a Windows XP-based computer

When you try to change the desktop wallpaper in a Microsoft Windows XP-based computer, the options may be missing or unavailable. Therefore, you cannot change your wallpaper or use other options that are located in the Display Properties dialog box. This problem may occur after you remove spyware from the system.

This problem occurs when a registry key is set to hide or to lock the display settings on the computer. The registry key can be set by an administration policy or by malicious software.

Important This section, method, or task contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully. For added protection, back up the registry before you modify it. Then, you can restore the registry if a problem occurs. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry ( )

To resolve this problem, follow these steps:

1. Click Start, click Run, type regedit, and then click OK.
2. Locate and then click the following registry subkey:
3. In the right-pane, right-click the NoDispAppearancePage value if the value exists, and then click Delete.
4. Repeat step 3 for the following registry values if these values exist in the registry:
* NoDispCPL
* NoDispBackgroundPage
* NoDispScrSavPage
* NoDispSettingsPage

Note Locate any registry value that says "Wallpaper" if it exists. In the right pane, right-click the registry value, click Delete, and then click OK.
5. Locate and then click the following registry subkey:
6. In the right-pane, right-click the NoDispAppearancePage value if the value exists, and then click Delete.
7. Repeat step 6 for the following registry values if these values exist in the registry:
* NoDispCPL
* NoDispBackgroundPage
* NoDispScrSavPage
* NoDispSettingsPage

Note Locate any registry value that says "Wallpaper" if it exists. In the right pane, right-click the registry value, click Delete, and then click OK.
8. For the changes to take effect, you may have to restart the computer after you delete these registry values.

The following list describes the previous registry values. The list also describes how the settings of these values affect the options that are located in the Display Properties dialog box:

Display Name: Disable Display Control Panel
Description: Prevents the Display icon in Control Panel from working
Value Name: NoDispCPL
Setting: 1 = Enabled and 0 (zero) = Disabled

Display Name: Hide Background page
Description: Prevents the displaying of the Background tab
Value Name: NoDispBackgroundPage
Setting: 1 = Enabled and 0 (zero) = Disabled

Display Name: Hide Screen Saver page
Description: Prevents the displaying of the Screen Saver tab
Value Name: NoDispScrSavPage
Setting: 1 = Enabled and 0 (zero) = Disabled

Display Name: Hide Appearance page
Description: Prevents the displaying of the Appearance tab
Value Name: NoDispAppearancePage
DWORD Setting: 1 = Enabled and 0 (zero) = Disabled

Display Name: Hide Settings page
Description: Prevents the displaying of the Settings tab
Value Name: NoDispSettingsPage
DWORD Setting: 1 = Enabled and 0 (zero) = Disabled
Continue Reading...

10 things you MUST know before you register a domain name with anyone

10 things you MUST know before you register a domain name with anyone

A domain name insider speaks out and blows the lid off of the hidden "gotchas" domain registrars use to leverage your domains, your traffic and your money to their advantage.

General practice tricks

1. "transfer-out" fees
Buried in the fine print of a registrars' "Terms of Service" will be a hidden fee authorizing them to charge your credit card a "transfer-out" fee if you move your domain to another registrar. Often times, this transfer-out fee is 2 or 3 times the cost of the original registration.

This practice violates the ICANN policy on domain transfers. In most cases if this happens to you a simple call to your credit card company will have the charge reversed, if you notice. Registrars who use this practice play the numbers game as many will not.
2. the fine print from hell
Most people (read: nobody) actually reads the long, odious Terms of Service for anything they buy online. Some registrars bury truly chilling things in these terms like the aforementioned "transfer-out" fees and in one mind-boggling case a "power-of-attorney".
3. "Pay-as-you-go":
This is where you make a multi-year interest-free loan to the registrar. It works like this: You register a domain with them for example, 5 years (perhaps to obtain a discounted rate), you expect your domain name to be registered for 5 years. Think again, some registrars will pay the registry for 1 year and pocket the rest of your money.

Then for the rest of your five year term they'll renew each year for one year. Usually this is coupled with a strict "no-refunds" policy, so an odd situation occurs: they stand to make more money from your original registration if they lose you as a customer before your full 5 years are up, so providing poor service to the point where you leave actually adds to their bottom line.

You can use a Free whois lookup tool like EasyWhois to verify the real expiration date for your domain. It should match up with the number of years you paid your registrar for.

Whois database scams

4. whois edit fees and locks
Every time you register a domain name, the details of that domain registration must be published in a publicly accessible database called Whois.

One of the functions a registrar is supposed to be providing to you is the ability to change those whois records. Some registrars (especially the bargain basement outfits) register your domain for a dirt-cheap price and then ding you with an "administration fee" when you want to edit your Whois record.

Some others may also "lockdown" your domain for 60 days everytime you make an edit to your record, preventing you from moving the name out to another registrar.
5. premium whois privacy services
Because your domain record is public for all to see, some registrars want to upsell you to "privacy services" or "whois masking", "private registration", where they put their own info in the whois record instead of yours.

The important thing to know here is that in the eyes of the domain Registry to which all the Registrars interact, and the Registry's oversight body (like ICANN, or in Canada, CIRA), whoever is listed in the domain whois record as the domain Registrant is the legal owner of the domain name. Keep that in mind, if you use a service like this, they own the domain, not you, notwithstanding whatever contract or Terms of Service you enter into with them to "own" this name on your behalf. If it lands in a dispute proceeding it will be an open and shut case: they own the name.

Taking it one step further, some "privacy" services will get you to sign up for the whois privacy service and then they turn around and happily offer to sell your true data to anybody else who cares to pay for it.
6. mining whois and domain slamming
Because all the data is there for the taking, spammers and marketers "mine" the whois database and harvest registrant data including addresses, fax numbers and email addresses. This is a real problem, and there have been very slow moving Whois database reform processes creeping through ICANN as well as CIRA in Canada.

In the meantime though, people may wonder why is it that shortly after they register a domain name, they start getting all kinds of marketing spam in their mailbox. This is because their email address is being harvested by robots from the Whois database. There is a free service to protect your email address called

The variation on this is some registrars (and there is one outfit who is particularly notorious for this) which is mining the whois database for registrant information, and then mailing out what look like renewal invoices for either those domain names or variations of them.

Unsuspecting recipients think they've received a renewal invoice on their domain and then remit payment, initiating a domain transfer without realizing it. Surprise, you've been slammed. In the worst cases your website and email comes crashing down as your DNS services terminate with your old provider.
Domain lock-in
(a.k.a You can check out any time you like, but you can never leave)
7. the registrar-lock
There has historically been a real problem with "domain slamming" (see above) and unauthorized domain transfers, so the "registrar-lock" was created to protect a domain against this. If the registrar lock is set, nobody can transfer your domain away from you. This is actually a good thing and best practices include having this set for all your domains. The sharper registrars enable it by default when they register or transfer a domain for you.

Alas, this lock can become a real problem for you if it is turned on and the registrar will not turn it off, or give you the ability to turn it on or off yourself.
8. the domain auth-code
Some of the Top-Level-Domains (TLDs) run on a protocol called "EPP" and to further guard against unauthorized transfers, a domain must have an 8-character auth-code supplied before it will transfer. Current examples are .BIZ, .INFO and .ORG. The current or "losing" registrar holds this code. You need it if you want to move your domain away. Hopefully they will give it to you.
Traffic and monetization scams
9. domain parking
You may not know this, but domain parking is big business. You know, when you click on a link somewhere or make a typo entering a web address and you wind up on some crapola "search page" optionally throwing up a million pop-up ads? That is a parked domain and the larger players can park thousands of domains and make literally millions of dollars "monetizing" them via domain parking.

You know who has access to thousands of domains? Domain registrars. Some of them offer domain registrations and rock bottom prices just so they can monetize the parked names. This may not bother you, but some people don't realize they're paying for something their registrar then uses to generate more revenue for themselves.

(Update: since the time of writing one registrar in particular rolled out a "Make money from your domains' parked pages" initiative, which surprised me since I knew them to be one of the biggest parked page monetizers around - they make millions per month monetizing their customers' parked domains - until I looked at the details: Packages start at 3.99/month. They are actually charging their customers for domain parking monetization. What audacity. If you actually have a domain that's actually worth something parked, take it to a parking service. They pay you to park your pages. Not the other way around).
10. "free" URL Forwarding
Some people may wonder why the price ranges vary so much for domain registrations and what the difference is between somebody who offers everything but the kicthen sink for $2/year while others charge more than 10 times that much for basic DNS and URL forwarding.

Well the low cost one often has other tricks up their sleeve for making money, either by adding your domain to their parked pool (above) or in this case, they offer "free" URL forwarding for your domain, and then sell pop-up or pop-under advertisements on your domain. You know, those things people like so much.
Bonus item:
11. Domain Front Running
This is where a domain registrar or an intermediary (like a domain lookup site) mines the searches for possibly attractive domains and then either sells the data to a third-party, or goes ahead and registers the name themselves ahead of you. In one case a registrar took advantage of what's known as the "grace period" and registered every single domain users looked up through them and held on to them for 5 days before releasing them back into the pool at no cost to themselves.

Again, there are domain lookup sites like EasyWhois which have a "Guaranteed No-Frontrunning" lookup policy.

There are many gotcha's in the arcane and Kafkaesque world of domain name registrations. There is no free lunch, the rock bottom priced domain registrar has other plans to boost their revenues and at the end of the day a good rule of thumb is....
You get what you pay for
So if you want to register your domain with a registrar who doesn't play any of these games, a domain registrar who:

* never hides any fees
* pays the registry for the same number of years you order, up front
* gives you direct, unfettered access to your whois records, your registrar locks, your auth codes and even total control over your domain's DNS settings like hostname records, mail exchangers and nameservers
* offers a free whois email privacy service and will never sell your data to a third party
* who doesn't "monetize" your domains
* who never "front runs" prospective domain searchers
* a domain registrar who answers the phone and basically doesn't try to upsell you or sell you a bunch of services you don't need or want, who is courteous, professional and has over 10 years experience providing rock solid domain and DNS services...

Then you want to be dealing with these guys :

Continue Reading...

Friday, November 13, 2009

How to install Vbox in ubuntu?

Debian-based Linux distributions

Add one of the following lines according to your distribution to your /etc/apt/sources.list:

deb karmic non-free
deb jaunty non-free
deb intrepid non-free
deb hardy non-free
deb gutsy non-free
deb dapper non-free
deb lenny non-free
deb etch non-free
deb sarge non-free
deb xandros4.0-xn non-free

The Sun public key for apt-secure can be downloaded here. You can add this key with

sudo apt-key add sun_vbox.asc

or combine downloading and registering:

wget -q -O- | sudo apt-key add -

The key fingerprint is

AF45 1228 01DA D613 29EF 9570 DCF9 F87B 6DFB CBAE
Sun Microsystems, Inc. (xVM VirtualBox archive signing key)

To install VirtualBox, do

apt-get update

apt-get install virtualbox-3.0

Replace virtualbox-3.0

* by virtualbox to install VirtualBox 1.6.6
* by virtualbox-2.0 to install VirtualBox 2.0.12
* by virtualbox-2.1 to install VirtualBox 2.1.4
* by virtualbox-2.2 to install VirtualBox 2.2.4

Note: Ubuntu users might want to install the dkms package (not available on Debian) to ensure that the VirtualBox host kernel modules (vboxdrv, vboxnetflt and vboxnetadp) are properly updated if the linux kernel version changes during the next apt-get upgrade.

installing dkms
sudo apt-get install dkms
Continue Reading...

Thursday, November 12, 2009

how to control and monitor apc ups with apcupsd?

* apcupsd

Apcupsd is the daemon which will monitor your UPS to shutdown the system when the UPS' power is going to fail. The homepage for apcupsd,, has very helpful documentation for doing complicated setups.


* An APC UPS. Apcupsd works with most of APC's Smart-UPS models as well as most simple signalling models such a Back-UPS, and BackUPS-Office.


First of all, we have to install apcupsd package. Install the apcupsd package in the Synaptic Package Manager. See SynapticHowto. If you want to see the stat of the UPS through the browser, you can also install apcupsd-cgi package.

Edit the file /etc/apcupsd/apcupsd.conf which by default includes good comments on usage:


For UPSCABLE you have to specify the type of cable connecting the UPS to your computer. Read the comments in the file to see which possibilities you have. For example, if the UPS used is the APC Back-UPS ES 700V, you have to write usb.

You must also look for and modify the UPSTYPE. The comments in the file describes the different possibilities available. You may choose the appropriate one. Again, from our example of an APC Back-UPS ES 700V, you would write usb.

The final setting you must fix is DEVICE. As the comments note, with a usb type UPS apcupsd can autodetect the device, so you should comment out the DEVICE setting (by putting a '#' in front of it). Otherwise, you will need to know which /dev node your device is connected to. If your UPS cable is a serial type then your device may be something like /dev/ttyS0.

Then you must edit the file /etc/default/apcupsd and change the no of the ISCONFIGURED with a yes.

Once you have apcupsd configured, running and the device connected to your computer you will be able to check on the status of the device using the apcaccess command. Output from the command will vary based on the type of UPS you have. Most likely, the better the UPS the more detailed the information you will get.

Optionally, if you want your computer to reboot after a power fail, you must edit the /etc/init.d/halt due a bug that it has. You must change the poweroff="-p" with poweroff=""

The following applies to Drapper Drake (LTS 6.06), but does not apply to most Ubuntu default setups, where /usr is simply part of the root filesystem. You only need to do this if the /usr filesystem has a separate entry in /etc/fstab:

* You need to uncomment the line 10 in file "/etc/apcupsd/killpower" which means changing "mount -n -o ro /usr" to "mount -n -o ro /usr"
* This will ensure that the shared libraries,, and are visible to apcupsd after shutdown when it runs "/etc/apcupsd/apccontrol killpower" to shut off the ups power otherwise the UPS will stay on and your system will not automatically reboot when utility power returns.


The following changes to a Ubuntu system should allow APCUPSD-CGI web interface to be accessible. Note that for this to work you MUST have Apache2 installed and configured properly for your Ubuntu system.

Start by installing the apcupsd-cgi package with:

sudo apt-get install apcupsd-cgi

This will drop several files into /usr/lib/cgi-bin/apcuspd.

For this to work you MUST have CGI enabled in your Apache configuration and the CGI directory should be pointed at /usr/lib/cgi-bin/

The only thing left is to go to the web address:


I would also recommend installing gapcmon from synaptic

Source :
Continue Reading...

Saturday, November 7, 2009

what are the different User accounts and passwords in Clonezilla?

In Clonezilla live, two accounts are available: (1) account "user" with sudo privilege, password is "live", (2) administration account "root", no password. Therefore you can not login as root, the only way to get root privilege is to login as user, and run "sudo su -" to become root. Note, for old clonezilla live (naming is
clonezilla-live-2007XXXX), root's password is "drbllive".

For better security, it is recommended to change the passwords of user and root by command "passwd" before you allow remote access. When Clonezilla live boots, the ssh service is NOT automatically started, and the setting in /etc/hosts.deny does NOT block any connection. If you want to remotely ssh login into your Clonezilla live, you have to start ssh service by "/etc/init.d/ssh start".
Continue Reading...

Monday, October 26, 2009

Your CD drive or DVD drive is missing or is not recognized by Windows or other programs

Windows XP

1. Click Start, and then click Run.
2. In the Open box, type regedit, and then click OK.
3. In the navigation pane, locate and then click the following registry subkey:
4. In the right pane, click UpperFilters.

Note You may also see an UpperFilters.bak registry entry. You do not have to remove that entry. Click UpperFilters only. If you do not see the UpperFilters registry entry, you still might have to remove the LowerFilters registry entry. To do this, go to step 7.

5. On the Edit menu, click Delete.
6. When you are prompted to confirm the deletion, click Yes.
7. In the right pane, click LowerFilters.
8. On the Edit menu, click Delete.
9. When you are prompted to confirm the deletion, click Yes.
10. Exit Registry Editor.
11. Restart the computer.

Remove and reinstall drivers in Microsoft Windows XP

1. Click Start, and then click Control Panel.
2. Click System and Maintenance, and then click System,
3. On the Hardware tab, click Device Manager. If you are prompted for an administrator password or for a confirmation, type the password, or click Allow.
4. In Device Manager, expland DVD/CD-ROM drives, right-click the CD and DVD devices, and then click Uninstall.
5. When you are prompted to confirm that you want to remove the device, click OK.
6. Restart the computer.

After the computer restarts, the drivers will be automatically installed.
See if reinstalling the drivers fixed the problem.
Now try to play or access a CD or DVD.

If you can play or access a CD or DVD, you are finished with this article.
Continue Reading...

How to disable Windows WGA notification on XP?

1. Lauch Windows Task Manager.
2. End wgatray.exe process in Task Manager.
3. Restart Windows XP in Safe Mode.
4. Delete WgaTray.exe from c:\Windows\System32.
5. Delete WgaTray.exe from c:\Windows\System32\dllcache.
6. Lauch RegEdit.
7. Browse to the following location:
Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Notify
8. Delete the folder ‘WgaLogon’ and all its contents
9. Reboot Windows XP.
Continue Reading...

Sunday, September 13, 2009

Setting up dyndns (ddcleint) with clarkconnect

Here we go:

Log onto you box with putty


$ wget
$ tar zxvf ddclient-3.8.0.tar.gz
$ cd ddclient*
$ cp ddclient /usr/sbin
$ mkdir /etc/ddclient

The config to ddclient is pretty easy, but the really silly easy way to do it is:
Log into > Support > DNS Tools > Update Client Configurator>
Have it create the config text for ddclient. Copy this text onto clipboard. Then, in the Putty window, do:


$ nano /etc/ddclient/ddclient.conf

Paste the clipboard, (shift + insert) find the DynDNS account password replace the ##password##,
Save with crtl+o then
Exit with crtl+x.

Then type:


$ ddclient -daemon=0 -query
$ cp sample-etc_rc.d_init.d_ddclient /etc/rc.d/init.d/ddclient
$ /sbin/chkconfig --add ddclient

Now use winscp and create the folder: /var/cache/ddclient
and test with:


ddclient -daemon=0 -debug -verbose -noquiet

Continue Reading...

Saturday, July 18, 2009

Windows XP recovery console commands

The Recovery Console is a special command-line interface for Windows XP which allows an administrator to identify and locate drivers and files which are problematic, as well as troubleshoot system settings. It’s recommended by Microsoft only for advanced users (in other words, that nerdy kid down the block), and only when Safe Mode (pressing the F8 key at boot-up) is not working.

The highlights of what commands you’ll most likely use:
Bootcfg” recovers the Boot.ini file.
Chkdsk /r” looks for bad disk sectors and attempts to recover any information which can be read from them.
Copy” copies a file to a target location.
Delete” deletes one file.
Disable” disables a Windows system service or driver.
Enable” restarts a disabled service or driver.
Diskpart” manages hard disk partitions. Be very careful using this!
Expand” decompresses a compressed file. This is good for getting files off the installation CD if needed.
Fixmbr” repairs the boot code on a hard-disk. If your operating system “cannot be found” you’ll likely use this command, along with little brother “Fixboot”.
Continue Reading...

Monday, May 25, 2009

Debian / Ubuntu Linux Setting a Default Gateway

This article is not written by me, the credit goes to the author who wrote this.
Q. How do I setup a default gateway on Debian or Ubuntu Linux? My router IP is and I'd like to setup this as a default gateway for Debian Linux.
A. You can use command line tool such as
a] ip command - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels
b] route command - show / manipulate the IP routing table
c] Save routing information to a configuration file so that after reboot you get same default gateway.

ip command to set a default router to

Login as the root and type:
# ip route add default via
$ sudo ip route add default via

route command to set a default router to

Login as the root and type:
# route add default gw
$ sudo route add default gw

Save routing information to a configuration file /etc/network/interfaces

Open /etc/network/interfaces file
# vi /etc/network/interfaces
$ sudo vi /etc/network/interfaces
Find eth0 or desired network interface and add following option
Save and close the file. Restart networking:
# /etc/init.d/networking restart
$ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

Source :
Continue Reading...

Unable to ping from Terminal but able to browse using firefox?

Q: Unable to ping from terminal but able to browse the internet with browsers ?

Symptoms :
ping ----- works

connect : Network is unreachable

traceroute -n
traceroute to (, 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
connect: Network is unreachable.

netstat -nr
Kernel IP routing table
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface U 0 0 0 wlan0 U 0 0 0 wlan0

Ans : The system does not have a default route.

to add a default route: route add default gw 192.168.1.x (where x is the ip of the gateway)

For more information on adding a default route to the system read this

Continue Reading...

Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Add pidgin PPA to sources list to upgrade pidgin with update manager

Ubuntu ships Pidgin but does not update it after a release (except for security issues). For those users who desire new releases of Pidgin, we have packaged Pidgin in a PPA. If you encounter problems with these packages, try building from source and report the bug.
To setup the PPA, copy-and-paste these commands into a terminal:

sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver 67265eb522bdd6b1c69e66ed7fb8bee0a1f19asdf6a8 /etc/lsb-release
echo deb $DISTRIB_CODENAME main | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pidgin-ppa.list
Once this PPA is setup, Pidgin updates will show up in Update Manager along with the usual Ubuntu updates. The PPA will need to be re-setup only after upgrading Ubuntu.
Continue Reading...

Sunday, April 12, 2009

How to fix No printer listed in Qcad?

Intro Qcad

QCAD is an application for computer aided drafting in two dimensions (2d). With QCAD you can create technical drawings such as plans for buildings, interiors, mechanical parts or schemas and diagrams. QCAD works on Windows, Mac OS X and many Linux and Unix Systems. The source code of the QCAD community edition is released under the GPL (Open Source).

Qcad is a free app and is available in ubuntu respiratory. You can find and install Qcad from Add/ Remove apps under graphics section.

Q: Qcad printing problem - No printers listed in QCAD?

Ans :
  • Open terminal
  • sudo nano /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
  • Find line: Printcap /var/run/cups/printcap
  • Edit it out, and make a new line, so:
# Printcap /var/run/cups/printcap
Printcap /etc/printcap
  • If you do not find the line printcap /var/run/cups/printcap then add the line " Printcap /etc/printcap " (without quotes)
  • Save and close the editor
  • Restart cups : sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
  • Restart Qcad
Continue Reading...

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Installing CDROM drivers in DOS, WIN 3.1, Win95

In order to use a CD-ROM Drive, your computer must first have a CD-ROM software driver installed. This is usually supplied with the drive but may not necessarily have been installed. The CD-ROM software driver is normally supplied on a floppy disk and includes a SETUP or INSTALL program. Following installation, the CD-ROM software driver is normally loaded at system startup time via a series of entries in the machine's C:\CONFIG.SYS & C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT files.
For example:

DEVICEHIGH=C:\DOS\oakcdrom.sys /D:mscd001

LH C:\DOS\MSCDEX.EXE /D:mscd001 /l:D
The first /D: switch is the drive number, which must be the same in both config.sys and autoexec.bat. In the above example its "/D:mscd001". (If you had 2 drives fitted the second may be /D:mscd002) The /l:D switch sets a drive letter for your CD-ROM. (In this case Drive D:\) You can make this anything you want after your Hard Drives that is not taken, but make sure you put a "LASTDRIVE=" line at the end of config.sys to allow for enough environmental space. This can be made as the letter after your last drive in use (i.e. =F) as each letter used, uses a small piece of available environment. (LASTDRIVE=Z would enable ALL available Drive Letters) In this example HIMEM.SYS is used to load driver into upper memory block.
oakcdrom.sys = CD-ROM Driver (Which is named differently by each manufacturer) and can be located in its own directory.
MSCDEX.EXE is provided as part of MS-DOS and sometimes on Install Disk as well.
HIMEM.SYS is provided as part of MS-DOS and enables use of the upper memory area.

Source :

Continue Reading...

Friday, April 10, 2009

DOS printing on xp?

Q : How to print from DOS in xp to a shared printer on a network? How to connect a printer using the command " net use " ?

Ans : To print from DOS environment in xp to a printer shared on a network, in command line

net use lpt1: \\hostname\printer share name /persistent:yes

to delete the share

net use lpt1 /delete
Continue Reading...

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Update manager error - The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available

Q : Update manager gives error :
" W: GPG error: hardy Release: The following signatures couldn't be verified because the public key is not available: NO_PUBKEY 248DD1EEBC8EBFE8 "

Ans : sudo apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver 248DD1EEBC8EBFE8

Sources :
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Thursday, March 12, 2009

Unable to download incoming attachments from yahoo

Since October many people are facing problem with downloading the incoming attachments. The fix for this is simple.

  • Update / install Flash player to current version : Check your flash version with
  • Update / install JAVA to current version
  • Clean Cookies, Delete temp files from your browser
  • Some settings in the anti virus installed on your pc
For QuickHeal

  1. Update to the current version, update the virus database.
  2. Open options > email protection > Control attachments to your incoming mails - Disable all.

For Trend micro

  1. Update to the current version, update the virus database.
  2. Go into Virus Controls > Protection Against Viruses > click on Settings and uncheck the box "Threats in Web mail attachments".
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Wednesday, March 11, 2009

How to Unrar files?

Q : I had received a file compressed in rar format. By default the archive manager was not able to extract files and was giving error.

Ans : Sudo apt-get install rar unrar

Then gnome archieve manager was able to extract files

Note: rar is to create rar files and unrar is to extract files from rar compression
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Sunday, February 15, 2009

nw-applet (network manager applet) missing from notification area

just did the regular update of my ubuntu hardy and on restart found the nw-applet (network manager applet) missing in the notification area. Without this it was hard to select the wireless zone and to know the signal strength.

So the fix:


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Saturday, January 24, 2009

Apache: Make Changes In a Config File Take Effect Without Restarting Server

Q. How do I make changes in a Apache server config file to take effect without restarting the Apache server itself w/o interrupting users' current session?
A. You can use httpd service or apachectl to reload configuration without interrupting users' sessions as

Login as root and type the following command
# /etc/init.d/httpd reload

# apachectl -k graceful
This is also known as gracefully restarting the Apache httpd daemon. If the daemon is not running, it is started. This differs from a normal restart in that currently open connections are not aborted. A side effect is that old log files will not be closed immediately. This means that if used in a log rotation script, a substantial delay may be necessary to ensure that the old log files are closed before processing them.
If running Apache with daemontools you can do this by:
svc -h /service/apache
Source :
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Thursday, January 22, 2009

Enable ssh for user

Secure Shell (SSH)

Secure Shell (SSH) access option was removed in 4.0 as a security precaution. Most users do not need SSH access, and yet, many end-users would select all options, not knowing the risks. To enable SSH access for a user, login as root and type:
usermod -s /bin/bash 

Source :
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Wednesday, January 21, 2009

Howtos - Installing PHP 5 and MySQL 5 on ClarkConnect 4.x

Howtos - Installing PHP 5 and MySQL 5 on ClarkConnect 4.xContents
1 Overview
2 Install
3 Install Modules
4 Links


Most of the source code for ClarkConnect 4.x comes from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 product. Since stability (as opposed to leading edge features) is a key policy for the Enterprise Linux product, it ships with PHP 4.3.x and MySQL 4.x. By default, ClarkConnect also ships with these PHP and MySQL versions.

This howto provides instructions on how to upgrade the PHP to 5.1.x and MySQL to 5.0.x.

First, you need to add the optional software repository to your system. From the command line, run:
echo "rpm [pcn] System extras" > \
apt-get update

If you already have PHP/MySQL installed, then run:
apt-get dist-upgrade

If you do not have PHP/MySQL installed, run:
apt-get install cc-php cc-mysql

Install Modules

Depending on your application, additional PHP modules may be required. For example, most webmail applications require PHP's IMAP module. Common PHP modules include:
gd - graphics module
imap - mail module
ldap - LDAP module
mysql - MySQL module
soap - SOAP protocol module
xml - XML parsing module

If your application requires a module, install it using the following as a guide:
apt-get update
apt-get install php-imap

You should restart the web server after installing a module:
/sbin/service httpd restart

short code : 
apt-get install cc-php cc-mysql php-imap php-gd php-ldap php-mysql php-soap php-xml
source :
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How to install perl dependencies?

Howtos - Install PERL dependenciesContents
1 Getting Started
2 Upgrading the Base Modules
3 Common Gotchas for LWP
4 Installed Modules
5 Installing Additional Modules

Getting Started

Bring up a console session and perform the following commands:
apt-get update
apt-get clean
apt-get install cc-devel
apt-get install perl-CPAN
apt-get install perl-libwww-perl

Upgrading the Base Modules

Next, perform the following commands. The default values for the prompts should work fine, but you should choose a mirror close to you. Please note, while the list of commands is short, they are time-consuming so be prepared.
perl -MCPAN -e shell
install Bundle::CPAN
reload cpan

install IO::Zlib
reload cpan

install Bundle::LWP
reload cpan
Common Gotchas for LWP

If you run into problems with LWP here are some things to check
robot/ua-get..........FAILED -- ping your hostname, this won't work until ping does. edit /etc/hosts

Failures in these test are most likely caused by proxy inteference

If that happens, go ahead and
force install LWP
reload cpan

Installed Modules
  If you do not have webmin installed you can use this script to view a list of the installed modules.

use ExtUtils::Installed;

my $instmod = ExtUtils::Installed->new();

foreach my $module ($instmod->modules()) {
  my $version = $instmod->version($module) || "???";
 print "$module -- $versionn";

At this point the following modules should be installed:

Installing Additional Modules

To install any additional modules from CPAN use:
perl -MCPAN -e shell
source :
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Registration and upgrade

After installing clarkconnect the next thing to do is
  • Register your installation with clarkconnect : IF the system is not registered you can still use the box of the shelf but you will not get software upgrades, you wll also not be able to install developer tools ( gcc- complier) to install softwares. The community edition is free and serves the home or small office requirement. Do not use the mail server without static ip, emails sent by servers on dynamic dns are considered as spam.
  • Upgrade the packages : For more secure system it is always recomended to upgrade the pacakages
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How to compile packages in clarkconnect?


Whether you are building software or the Linux kernel from source, you will need several tools installed on your system:
and many others

We provide a simple way to install a core set of developer tools on your system.

Bring up a command line session on your ClarkConnect system and run the following commands:
apt-get update
apt-get clean
apt-get install cc-devel

You will be prompted to install numerous packages (see screenshot). Hit Y at the prompt and the Enter key to install the developer environment.


If your ClarkConnect box is accessible via the Internet (HTTP, FTP, etc), we recommend uninstalling the developer tools once you are done compiling. Run the following commands to remove the developer tools from your system.
rpm -e cc-devel

In some cases, uninstalling the developer tools may cause the compiled software to fail. In this case, you can either re-install the missing package, or re-install the cc-devel package.
source :
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Sunday, January 18, 2009

ClarkConnect as SERVER n GATEWAY

ClarkConnect is a powerful and affordable Internet server and gateway solution. The software solution will give your organization enterprise-level server features at an affordable price.

Provides core server applications
- mail, web, VPN, backup, file and print services...
Protects network and data
- antivirus, antispam, firewall, intrusion prevention...
Enforces Internet usage policies
- content filter, peer-to-peer filter, bandwidth manager...
Simplifies management and monitoring
- system monitoring, software updates, mail backup...

More info, download and installation instructions at :
User Guide for installation and configuration :
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Ubuntu Linux NFS Client Configuration to mount nfs share

Ubuntu NFS

After searching net, I discover that you need two packages to mount nfs share under Ubuntu Linux.
So, I did Install necessary support for nfs client side i.e. portmap and nfs-common package. Type following command to install packages:

sudo apt-get install portmap nfs-common
Now mount to /home/me/myfiles
mkdir myfiles
sudo mount /home/me/myfiles

Note you may need to restart above services:
sudo /etc/init.d/portmap restart
sudo /etc/init.d/nfs-common restart

How do I access my files using NFS?

Just go to mount point i.e. myfiles with cd command:
cd myfiles
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Saturday, January 17, 2009

Installing 64 bit Flash plugin

  1. Download the plugin from here :
  2. Extract the tar file
  3. Open gnome file manager
  4. Navigate to home folder
  5. Display the hidden files (press Ctrl + H )
  6. Get in to folder .mozilla
  7. Create folder plugins
  8. Copy extracted from the tar file
  9. Restart mozilla firefox
  10. To check the flash version log on to this site in mozilla :

Or you can do this....
  1. copy to /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins
  2. If you are using opera as your alternate browser then flash should work by default

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Monday, January 12, 2009

Command to list all physical / logical Drives

With this command you can list all the physical / logical drives and their file system, this list is helpful in identifying the drive and mounting it to the machine.

" fdisk -l "

Note: You need to be root or super user (sudo su)

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Tuesday, January 6, 2009

Include mulitverse and universe repositories in the sources list

Synaptic package manager is used to add or remove software packages to the system. The synaptic package manager will search for the packages in the repositories list. This list has the name and source / location of the packages.

Path to sources list: /etc/apt/sources.list

edit this file ( # nano sources.list ) and add the line below and save the file.

deb Hardy main restricted multiverse universe

Update the package manger by running the command: sudo apt-get update

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Archive type not supported error for rar files

To extract rar files with default Archive manager you need to install rar and unrar-free from synaptic package manager.
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Installing Ubuntu Hardy 8.04

I choose Ubuntu 8.04 desktop edition for Desktop / workstations. Its better than windows flavor and its free. The latest edition is ubuntu interpid 8.10, but here we use ubuntu hardy which is LTS (long term support upto 2011)
  • You can get more information on ubuntu desktop, here

System Requirements: Ubuntu is available for PC, 64-Bit PC and Intel based Mac architectures. At least 256 MB of RAM is required to run the alternate install CD (384MB of RAM is required to use the live CD based installer). Install requires at least 4 GB of disk space.

Installing ubuntu is easy.
  • Get your copy of free liveCD from here
  • Boot your machine with the liveCD
  • Check if all of your hardware is supported
  • Prebundled software package covers the basic need of office or home desktop.
  • Install ubuntu from the desktop install link
  • The installation GUI is self explanatory.
  • On complete installation boot the machine from your Hard drive.
  • update the packages from System > Administration > Update Manager
  • you are done.....
Note: You can install ubuntu on windows too.
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